The difference between initiatory and Nazi-Fascist thought is unmistakable. The former aims at perfecting man, the latter exalts itself and its followers. Freemasonry has always claimed to be the ‘Field of Freedom’ of laic, democratic, tolerant and liberal thought. But its true richness is in the ancient symbols it involves. Biblical mysticism, hermeticism, esotericism and spiritual alchemy are all part of its lexicon. These are the elements that have been manipulated by the promoters of the super-race, as Pierluigi Tombetti’s work explains; we present his preface.
Freemasonry and Nazism
by Athos A. Altomonte
© copyright by Esonet.it - Esonet.com
«On a wall in my town there is the Masonic symbol (square and compass), next to the Nazi symbol (swastika) […]»
The swastika is a symbol originated in ancient India , representing the motion of the sun in the cardiac center (universal love and understanding). Nazis took the symbol and reversed its rotation; this shows the senselessness of that criminal political movement.
It is certain that there has never been any contact between Freemasonry and Nazi-fascism, whose principles are completely antithetical. We must say, though, that Fascism (see The Priory of Sion Hoax by Robert Richardson) and Nazism took liberally from esoteric symbolism and from the thought of great thinkers such as Nietzsche, distorting their meanings to the advantage of their propaganda. In other words, they tried to give themselves a ‘noble setting', so to speak.
The difference between initiatory and Nazi-fascist thoughts is unmistakable. The former aims at perfecting man, the latter exalts itself and its followers. The initiatory thought aims at the construction of a universal chorda fratres (a chain of fraternal hearts), the other uses forced persuasion to glorify a faction, up to justifying the destruction of anything different. In actual fact this thought is not exclusive to the Nazi-fascist movement, but it originates from the radicalism of religious creeds.
Freemasonry has always claimed to be the ‘Field of Freedom' of laic, democratic, tolerant and liberal thought. But its true richness is in the ancient symbols it involves. Biblical mysticism, hermeticism, esotericism and spiritual alchemy are all part of its lexicon. These are the elements that have been manipulated by the promoters of the super-race, as Pierluigi Tombetti's work explains; we present his preface.
The Great Mysteries of Nazism - The fight with the Shadow
By Pierluigi Tombetti – Sugarco Editions
Note on the Author
Pierluigi Tombetti, historian of religions, writer, essayist, guest and historical consultant of many national television programs, collaborates with specialized magazines. His research is characterized by scientific attention to little known historical details, together with an open mind to new possibilities and levels of study. For more than ten years he has also been studying National Socialism and history of ancient civilizations.
Subject: from the magic of Runes and the mythic Thule to the occult SS rites and the Holocaust
The mysteries of an unprecedented historical event and of its most secret aspects in an accurate and documented inquiry.
All the secrets jealously kept by the Third Reich: from the esoteric society that started Nazism to the Lance of Longinus up to the quest for the Grail by the SS, a fascinating journey full of unpublished and historically verified details, which leads to the nucleus of Nazism, never explored so far with such depth and scientific method.
The SS expeditions in the quest for the entry to the mysterious underground city of Agartha, the theories of the Hollow Earth and of the Worlds of Ice, an itinerary of extraordinary interest in the quest for the solution of the most important mystery; the final answer to the question: ‘Why the Holocaust?' An enigma that is revealed only in the exciting epilogue: the exploration of the mysterious castle of Wewelsburg and its crypt, the occult temple of SS.
The book also explains in detail the scientific activities, the rituals and mysteries of the castle seat of the initiatory cult of SS.
By Giorgio Galli
The Great mysteries of Nazism is a book based on a substantial documentation and on a coherent interpretation; National Socialism was not a political movement, but a project to found a new religion. Its origins go back to the ‘Gnostic and occult teachings of the ancient traditions of the humankind', as it is summarized in the synoptic tables at the end of the book.
The Holocaust – the mass sacrifice for the destruction of the rival religion – can be explained only in the light of this interpretation.
Pierluigi Tombetti highlights the absolute originality of this interpretation and the particular reading of documents that leads to the accurate analysis of the meaning of the Wewelsburg castle, the main temple of the ‘new religion', run by Himmler and by the top management of the SS.
The Author has given a particular systematic order and has enriched of further and important documents an interpretation that was hinted at in the rich literature of National Socialism, proof of which is the bibliography in the book itself. In this context we appreciate this work whose subtitle – ‘The Fight with the Shadow' – offers the Author the clue to original thoughts and opens the field to further research.
Hitler himself, in his dialogues with Hermann Rauschning, which have caused many polemics (it has been verified that the quotations didn't all belong to the Fuhrer, but the substance doesn't change), states that those who consider the National Socialist movement only a political phenomenon haven't understood what National Socialism really is (and this expression is certainly his).
Nevertheless, for a certain aspect Nazism finds itself in a properly political context, in the sense that in the society following the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century, even to found a new religion one must start from politics.
Napoleon, which has been a model for the twentieth century dictators (Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin), when leaving for the expedition in Egypt, took Alexander as a model, stating that only in the East a leader could claim to be the son of God (therefore potential founder of a new religion), whilst in the West that would have just caused laughter.
Scientific revolution, with its process of rationalization, has made it difficult to propose religious forms in the West that don't have a rational basis (the Robespierrian Goddess of Reason). Therefore the origins are in the political sphere (rationalized politics: the power is based on the consent expressed to the elite by the crowd) of a phenomenology that bases the psycho-social aspect of the modern state on a kind of civil religion; this phenomenon has been defined as ‘nationalization of masses' by a political current with masters such as George Mosse. The latter has given a huge contribution to the study of what he calls, in the title of one of his works: ‘the cultural origins of the Third Reich' .
Under this aspect – foundation of a civil religion – National Socialism has common elements with another similar experience of the twentieth century (Italian Fascism) but also with a diametrically opposed one such as Soviet communism, also called ‘real socialism' (although rigorous Marxists deny that socialism or communism had anything to do with the experience of URSS).
As far as Fascism and its plan for the construction of a ‘civil religion' is concerned, which was also the goal of the Risorgimento elite and especially of Giuseppe Mazzini, we have accurate studies and a wide bibliography, on which I use here, as reference, the excellent ‘ Il culto del Littorio' (‘The cult of the fasces', Note of the Translator) by Emilio Gentile (Edizioni Laterza).
The book's subtitle is ‘The consecration of politics in the fascist Italy ' and the title of the introduction is: ‘In the quest for a civil religion for the Third Italy'. From these premises and with an accurate inquiry the book reaches a conclusion (titled: ‘Fascism and consecration of politics') which starts as follows: ‘Was Fascism a new religion? At the end of our journey the definition might still sound extravagant or absurd. But it will probably sound more plausible if we place historically Fascism in the wider phenomenon of consecration of politics in modern society. Not even for this aspect Fascism has been a phenomenon extraneous and isolated from the political world of modernity. It belongs to the blooming and disturbing modern phenomenon of laic religions, which for over two centuries have crowded the world of politics.'
Since one of the main components of Tombetti's analysis is the role that Hitler's personality had in the process of construction of the National Socialist religion, it is useful to consider a comparison that Gentile proposes:
‘The cult of personality is always based on myth… In the instance of other charismatic leaders, such as Stalin and Hitler, myth and cult are simultaneously developed inside their movements and because of them. In the case of Mussolini, on the contrary, the myth didn't precede the cult, but manifested itself with several aspects before the birth of Fascism and his ascent to power'.
Although it had this peculiarity, ‘the symbolic universe of Fascist religion revolved around the myth and cult of the duce, which were certainly the most spectacular and popular manifestation of the cult of fasces. But this centrality must not be misunderstood, giving the myth of Mussolini the credit for the origin of Fascist religion. This had been created by the collective experience of a movement that claimed to be invested of its own missionary charisma.'
I have used quotations with plenty of words such as ‘religions', ‘consecrations', ‘myth' and ‘cult' because Tombetti refers to a ‘collective experience of a movement that claims to be invested of its own missionary charisma' when he documents the long journey that from the origins of western culture leads to theosophy and ariosophy. Under the profile of the construction of a new religion for masses, the analogies between fascism and National Socialism can appear comprehensible (although National Socialism had an esoteric aspect which we will talk about later).
What seems more surprising (but connected to the topic of ‘laic religions that have populated the world of politics for over two centuries') is to find similar aspects (‘construction of a new religion') in the group of intellectuals that, around Lenin, organized the Bolshevik party and promoted the Russian revolution. For a complete picture I refer to my ‘ La Magia e il Potere – L'esoterismo nella politica occidentale (Magic and Power – the Esotericism of western Politics', Note of the Translator) and to ‘ Cultura politica e cultura esoterica nella sinistra russa (1880-1917)' (‘Political culture and esoteric culture in the Russian leftwing', Note of the Translator) by Nicola Fumagalli. From the latter I draw the following quotations:
‘Lunaciarsky, with Gorkij and Bogdanov, was one of the main exponents of the group called ‘the builders of God' ( bogo-strueitelsvo ). His ideas were effectively resumed in Gorkij's story ‘The confession'. In a significant part of this story we read: ‘Men are divided into two groups; the first are the eternal builders of God and the others are slaves of their craving for domain on the first group and on the whole world. They have distorted Christ's soul and disowned his commandments'.
Lunacharsky thought that religion was ‘the whole of feelings and ideas that make man part of the life of mankind and turn him into a link of the chain aimed at the top of superman, towards a magnificent and powerful existence, towards a perfect organism where life and reason celebrate their victory'. In the book ‘Religion and socialism' re-published in 1925, Lunacharsky tried to ‘analyze the relations between religion and socialism but most of all to define the position of socialism compared to other religious systems…'. For him ‘scientific socialism is the most religious of religions'.
The ‘builders of God' had many disputes with Lenin; however Lunacharsky was his first commissary of people for education after the conquest of power in 1917.
The philosopher Aleksandr Bogdanov kept being active in the Soviet Russia; he founded and managed an institution for the transfusion of blood on the bases of mystic-alchemic principles. He died because of experiments in this field in 1927. His philosophical thought can be found in the volume: A. A. Bogdanov, ‘ Quattro dialoghi su scienza e filosofia' (Four dialogues on science and philosophy, note of the Translator) (Ed. Odradrek, 2004, with texts by Ernst von Glaserfeld, Massimo Stanzione, Silvano Tagliagambe).
We have here described the aspects for which National Socialism can be seen as one of the political religions of the last two centuries.
But it has specific aspects which have been carefully studied as such by Tombetti; he effectively resumes this concept in the subtitle ‘The Fight with the Shadow'. He doesn't indulge in fancy satanic aspects of the new religion; he gives great importance to the Lance of Longinus and, although he criticizes it, he uses the ‘Lance of Destiny' by Trevor Ravenscroft. He presents Goebbels as a lover of astrology (he approached it on Hitler's suggestion, after his confidence following the appreciation for the minister of propaganda, who crushed the operation ‘Valkyrie' in Berlin , the conspiracy of 20 th July 1944).
But the book has the great merit of establishing an effective link between ‘the Shadow inside each of us (the idea of Jung from which the author draws) and the tragically negative character of the ‘new religion' that led to the Holocaust'.
As we know the same word taken literally from ancient sacredness (the victim burnt on the altar) has been questioned, especially when Finkelstein talked about ‘industry of the Holocaust'. Amo Mayer, in the best study on the subject, uses the term ‘Hebrewcide' (‘Soluzione Finale: lo sterminio degli Ebrei nella storia europea' [‘Final Solution: the extermination of Jews in the European history', Note of the Translator] , Mondadori).
This specification is important because the sacral explanation of the Holocaust is one of the key of Tombetti's interpretation. It can be shared in the picture of ‘fight with the shadow', with some clarification. For this specific aspect I refer to what I wrote when I edited the Italian edition of ‘Mein Kampf'. At the beginning and at the end there are two evaluations that appear contradictory.
The first is: ‘If today body perfection wasn't of secondary importance… it wouldn't happen that hundreds of thousands of girls would be deceived by disgusting Jewish bastards with bandy legs'.
The second: ‘The Jew will never stop his march towards world dictatorship of his own will. The impotence of peoples and the death caused by old age depend on the fact that their blood is not pure any more. On the contrary, the purity of blood keeps the Jew better than any other people in the world. Therefore he will continue his fatal journey until he is opposed by another force which, in a formidable fight, pushes back to Lucifer the man who assaults the heavens'.
It is obvious here the religious language that validates Tombetti's thesis. My comment follows: ‘Why do the ‘disgusting Jewish bastards' become the keepers of purity of blood, which places them in a better position of ‘any other people in the world'?
A contradiction? A change of opinion? In the occultist environment grows a view of the Jews that can explain these two statements, apparently contradictory. According to this view, the Jew has been an ‘under-man' because he is a destroyer of civilization, on the contrary of the Arian, who builds them; at the same time, though, he is a kind of an evil ‘super-man', because he owns an occult knowledge (exemplified in the Cabbala).
Thanks to this power the Jew is able to seduce, despite his ‘disgusting' physical aspect. At the same time, thanks to such power, he wants to gain the domination of the world, despite not knowing how to build civilization, therefore leading the world to the highest abomination… The Hitlerian book closes with the preannouncement of a dramatic battle, something similar to the Hebrew Armageddon, of Good (National Socialism) against Evil (the Jew ‘Lucifer'). In the following tragic years, with the epilogue of Auschwitz , Nazism will be identified with ‘absolute Evil', according to the definition that nevertheless the historian Ernst Nolte will deny, starting the ‘revisionist philosophy'.
This interpretation of a competition between religions highlighted by Tombetti, involves the physical destruction of all the followers of the stronger rival religion (because it is gifted with occult powers?) Not even Mayer, in the mentioned fundamental study, thinks that the physical elimination of all Jews was in the initial proposition of National Socialism. The latter also took the project by Lanz, which Tombetti mentions, of an isolation of Jews in Madagascar . The extermination is outlined in the moment when the defeat with Moscow brings to mind the final defeat (the famous conference of Wansee, planned for the 7 th December 1941, postponed to January 1942 for the Japanese attack to Pearl Harbor and the declaration of war to the United states , the premises for the final defeat of Germany ).
In 1938-39 there was a debate among the esoteric top ranks of National Socialism, expressed by the publication of ‘On the marble cliffs', the prophecy-book by Ernst Jilnger, the Master who as such was untouchable after the participation to the conspiracy of the 20 th July 1944. The debate was about the risk of a war that would compromise the destiny of the regime and its ‘religious' plan.
Hitler attacked Poland with the certainty that England wouldn't intervene.
He won the ‘lightning war' in the spring of 1940, but England resisted. The fatal decision to attack the URSS wasn't ‘incomprehensible', but based on the conviction that Hess had obtained results in his mission in England , which could have been neutralized if Hitler had presented himself as a champion of the West marching towards East.
But England kept fighting and bombing German cities, the Red Army was stronger than Hitler thought; the defeat in Moscow, whilst the United States entered the war transforming the conflict from European to worldwide, marked the fate of the war already at the end of 1941, although during the following summer the Axis was able to try a last effort who shattered in El Alamein and Stalingrad (end of 1942).
For this reconstruction I refer to the many editions of my book ‘ Hitler e il nazismo magico' (‘Hitler and magic Nazism', Note of the Translator) , which Tombetti quotes. Under the historical profile it wasn't an immediate process that caused ‘a nation of eighty million individuals to voluntarily subject to its messiah'. It took what National Socialism itself called ‘the years of fight', about a dozen. It took the crisis of 1929, before which the party had less than three percent of the votes. It didn't even get the majority in March 1933, after the conquest of power and the blaze of the Reichstag.
It is true, though, that the ‘Fight with the Shadow', a ‘religious' project that, as such, was a plan for ‘the whole world', required an enormous effort, made more difficult by the fact of having to ‘defend from an unknown enemy'.
The fight was won also because Hitler was too eager (the war). The history of religions tells us that they need time to affirm themselves. It took centuries for the Hebrew religion to go from polytheistic to monotheistic. The Christian religion fought against the Roman Empire for three centuries. The Fuhrer, perhaps, followed the model of Islamism, a warlike ride that in a few decades went from Spain to India , a kind of lightning-war of the time.
Hitler thought he could risk a war after he saw France 's and England 's weakness in Munich (September 1938). He found himself challenging the ‘biggest world powers' (Tombetti) with the only support of a weak Italian ally and the far away Japan . At this point, the fate of the great ‘religious' plan was marked, with its final account of massacres.
But if we see the ‘Fight with the Shadow', as Tombetti suggests, on the basis of Jung, as a fight inside the western culture, it might represent itself although not in the form of National Socialism, which is not repeatable.
In ‘The Great mysteries of Nazism' there are points that it is important to develop. Tombetti sees in the origins of National Socialism ‘vegetarian and health ideas that have a lot in common with the New Age movement'. He marks in this thought the idea of a backdating of history, a proto-history unknown and forgotten. ‘In every German there is the memory of Atlantis', Rauschning ironically said, therefore ‘it was probably also thanks to the research by von Sebottendorff if in the Third Reich the Pyramids of Gizah were considered a creation of the Arian people of Atlantis, older than the 3 rd millennium B.C.'.
Backdating history is also a characteristic of the New Age and in general of alternative cultures; for considerations on them I refer to my recent publications: ‘Appunti sulla New Age' (‘Notes on the New Age', Note of the Translator), (Kaos edizioni, 2003) and ‘La Magia e il Potere – L'esoterismo nella cultura politica occidentale' (‘Magic and Power – Esotericism in the western political culture', Note of the Translator) , (Ed. Lindau, 2004).
Referring to Tombetti's subtitle and the Jungian setting, I think that the ‘Shadow' and its aspect that refers to a more ancient history than the one known (source of archetypes) can originate two opposed readings, a negative and a positive one. The ‘Fight', the opposition regards the first reading, of which National Socialism is the expression; it is the attempt to appeal to primordial energies, with the proposition, according to Tombetti, of building a new religion so tragic to the point of mass sacrifices.
The positive version of the ‘Shadow' consists of its acceptance as part of ourselves, of a dialectic process that accompanies us in the enrichment of knowledge, without the presumption, which we might call Faustian, of venturing in enterprises such as the foundation of new religions, when we can aim at propitiating new illuminations through cultural, psychological and scientific availability, to open to new interpretations on what we know and on the destiny of the planet.
A promising start for this availability and opening is not to exclude the hypothesis of a more ancient and problematic history than our academic historiography is ready to accept. It scornfully strays into fancy-history and this reading is a cult of the New Age; it can be exemplified in Graham Hanchock and Robert Bauval. In his book Tombetti has caught the crucial aspect of National Socialism, which allows us to reflect on the present perspectives. National Socialism is unrepeatable as a political phenomenon.
Its tragic attempt to found a new religion is connected to a history of mankind where religions have been a fundamental element in the conflicts that stained it with blood, forcing us, epoch after epoch, to a ‘Fight with the Shadow' in its negative aspect, a threatening darkness that swallows our constructive sensitiveness.
This malignant ‘Shadow' is not buried under the ruins of 1945's Berlin . But a message comes from there; our history must be re-read. Perhaps it must be backdated to avoid that a possible history, undervalued as fancy-history, re-proposes its revenge in variations of the dramatic event that only for a dozen years has taken the name from National Socialism. Tombetti re-reads the latter in a way that traces a line that goes from proto-history to the Holocaust, as much as this term is emphasized and has become the symbol of the twentieth century.
‘The great mysteries of Nazism' is therefore a valuable book, both for the historical reconstruction and for its suggestive interpretations. Also because it draws our attention on some actual problems of western culture.
By Pierluigi Tombetti
Why this book? The fundamental reason that led me to seek information all around Europe for eight long years is in a simple question that started bothering me during the first years at University, when I got in contact with an Italian survivor from Auschwitz and with some friends fond of history. They clearly let me understand that what happened in Germany after the first world war wasn't an ordinary historical phenomenon that could be compared to others. For them it was simple historical curiosity. For me it was more than that.
A question arose spontaneously and kept pestering me; it was asleep for a few months and then it came back, forcing me, during the years, to direct my studies to the resolution of an enigma which no historian had yet given a satisfactory answer to, at least for me.
It was a simple and direct question that hid a hugely complex answer, which had more to do with the psychic and religious sphere than with the historical one: ‘Why the Holocaust?'
In actual fact to provide answers that appealed to financial or social matters wasn't enough. Hitler couldn't have decided to completely destroy not only Jews but millions of people considered not Arian only to take possession of their resources and land.
For thousands of years leaders have conquered subjected peoples, but none of them has ever planned to completely annihilate those who didn't belong to their alleged race.
A simple conquest would have been enough to make Germany very rich.
On the contrary, physically cancel millions of people would have been anti-economical; who could have practically achieved this plan?
The superior technology that Germans rightly flaunted had already difficulties in finding a way to kill in a ‘clean and economical' way six million Jews, imagine millions and millions. Wouldn't have been better to enslave the so-called ‘Untermenschen' (sub-human) forcing them to work for the Reich?
In actual fact there was a plan to make some peoples temporary slave, but they were only minorities. And it was only a temporary measure whilst waiting for a final solution.
This book should have been written a long time ago. It was due to all those who have suffered terribly and have died for a cause that they didn't know in its most important and hidden secrets and that should have been made public.
I've tried to do my best in presenting the most accurate available information; I clearly warn the reader wherever I make my own hypothesis (very few instances, exclusively relative to the ordination of Hitler as new Templar in the ONT of Lanz von Liebenfels and to the rituals of runic meditation in the crypt in Wewelsburg). All the rest consists of verifiable information. Nevertheless, my personal hypotheses have been refined following further elements that have come to light during time and they are to be considered very likely.
Why the Fight with the Shadow? This book talks about the Land of Shadow , viz. the obscure psychic sub-layer, the seat of the most hidden and secret feelings, which precisely for being obscure are more fearful.
We all have this shadowy area and as human beings we have the duty to explore it in order to know our most obscure sides and control them, with the purpose of becoming better men and women. The Fight with the Shadow is the eternal inner fight that every person carries out in order to better address his own life, correcting the worst aspects of himself.
But the Fight with the Shadow also expresses the fight against an obscure enemy that decided, over fifty years ago, to conquer the whole world. How can we defend ourselves from an enemy if we don't know him? Nazism has allowed, even helped, the forceful access of the archetype Woden/Odin in the Land of Shadow , and allowed it to take possession of its territory, until eighty million Germans were completely subdued. Not to Hitler, but to the archetypical psychic force that originated from this violent and mystic drive at the same time, which is inborn into the culture of German ‘Volk'.
Along the chapters we will see how C. G. Jung's great discovery has been the acknowledgment of this psychic epidemics, viz. of the advent of the archetype that took possession of German people's nightmares first (and therefore of oneiric and unconscious visions) and of their rational mind after.
We will also deal with the social and psychic background that prepared the advent of Nazism, from theosophy to the hallucinated ideologies of Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels. We will see how the Third Reich took possession of anti-scientific theories that strayed into fiction to achieve its final goal that consists of an essentially religious motivation.
The whole journey that we will carry out will lead to our final destination: the castle of Wewelsburg , where everything will resolve in a striking psychically powerful epilogue, which very few people have talked about.
We will see what happened in Wewelsburg, who worked there, why it was here that the plan was carried out for the SS expeditions in Tibet, in the Antarctic and in South America in search of the kingdom of Agartha, where Madame Blavatsky had localized the last true survivors of the divine Arian population in their underground capital, the mystic Shambhala.
Otto Rahn's quests for the Grail were also organized in Wewelsburg; here it was obtained the full mystic fusion with the ‘Volk', sought in vain for centuries by the descendents of the Germans of Arminius.
We will try to give an explanation for the rituals of meditation of the SS top ranks, we will understand why Himmler retired in contemplation in Wewelsburg and at Externesteine monoliths with his twelve apostles. Finally we will explore the Land of Shadow of Nazism, a historical phenomenon that doesn't have equals for violence and power and its mysteries will be revealed gradually, following a logical and consistent course based on absolutely real data.
I am positive that what you will read will cause contrasting feelings and emotions, in good and evil, as it did with me. But be certain that it is all true.
It is sufficient to go to Wewelsburg to have a better idea. It is sufficient to go to the museums of concentrations camps in Germany and Poland to see what really happened and how the answer to the question ‘Why the Holocaust?' must be especially sought in the Land of Shadow . And not only in the ordinary creases of history where we usually dig.
Nazism hasn't been an event like others. This book tries to explain why.
I have tried to present facts in the way that I felt more appropriate. The first three parts of the book are necessarily heavier because they are full of specialized information, but they are absolutely necessary to understand the whole. However, I have limited as much as possible notes, glosses and tedious academic explanation, preferring a more direct approach. The last part, result of extenuating researches and travels in the quest for the solution to a mystery, will be more pleasant to read, because of a more fluent style and certainly more fascinating because it tells about an exceptionally important discovery.
I hope that the reader will find exciting the reading of this book, at least as it was exciting for me to write it.
For any imprecision and omission I am to be considered the only responsible.
Milan , January 2005